Erratic rainfall, prolonged drought, floods and difficulties accessing markets continue to drive rural Somalis into urban areas, following a 2011 famine which killed 260,000 people.
"We are continuing to observe new internally displaced families arriving in Mogadishu," said Melaki Yirga, deputy regional director for the charity Mercy Corps. "These women, men and children have very little access to humanitarian support such as basic food."
Some 4.2 million Somalis - a third of the population - will need humanitarian aid and protection in 2019, one-third less than in 2018, largely due to good rainfall this year, the United Nations says. More than 60 percent of these people - 2.6 million - are internally displaced, with female-headed households, children and the elderly particularly at risk, it says.