Chinese investment in Africa has increased at an unprecedented level during the past two decades. Known as the ‘weapon of mass construction’, China’s footprint in Rwanda is no exception. Still recovering from the devastating 1994 genocide, the country urgently requires infrastructural investment to rebuild what was destroyed, and develop the future. The myth, however, looms larger than the reality Vivian Kayitesi, the head of investment promotion at Rwanda Development Board (RDB) noted: ‘The major area of Chinese investment in Rwanda are in construction and real estate, hotels and ICT’. She went on to say that since 1994 China’s investments stand at almost $200 millions out of more than $5 billion, which is less that 4% of total investments. Projects included the construction of high profile ‘landmarks’ such as the Marriot Hotel at $60 million (2010) through joint ventures, as well as Chinese-owned initiatives such as BCEG ($10m, 2009).
But not all construction is good construction.
During the past year, nightclubs and cafes were developed using
allegedly sub-standards materials. In 2012, Rwandan authorities claimed
that 84 hazardous cases were recorded; and 120 cases in 2013. According
to statistics from the Rwanda National Police Fire and Rescue Unit, 33
cases were very ‘serious’, largely occurring in Kigali, due to
short-circuiting. ‘Investigations indicate that electricity
installations in these affected facilities were either sub-standard,
outdated or were badly installed.’
Local construction companies, we learned, feel they cannot compete.
‘Most of big building and roads construction projects are being executed
by Chinese contractors,’ said a local engineer who requested anonymity.
He explained that Chinese companies win big tenders due to a
combination of low cost of construction backed by vast technical and
financial capacities. ‘They offer low prices because they import most
materials and equipment from China from partners who supply them with
materials at cheap prices,’ claimed the engineer.
In a government tender to construct a hangar at Kigali International
airport, China Star won the tender, bidding $1,2m. Two other local
companies, Real Constructors Ltd and Horizon Construction ,a subsidiary
of Horizon Group, had respectively bid $1.8 m and $3m.
Yet, Chinese construction companies have also been accused of
malpractice in tender processes. A supervisory engineer, working at Real
Constructors Ltd in Kigali said that cheapened project value was due to
cost-cutting measures that impacted the integrity and quality of
In the middle of Kigali, Chinese labour is busy at work, building
shopping malls and hotels. Kigali Marriot Hotel is one of the projects
awarded to a Chinese company. The US-based hotel chain announced in
March 2011 a partnership it entered with the government of Rwanda and
New Century Development Limited from China — currently constructing the
hotel at former Jali Club in Kigali — to manage the over $60m facility
to open in December 2014.
An accountant at the site who requested anonymity said that the bulk of
labour and materials used were imported from China, except for cement
sourced from Uganda and a few local materials such as wood and bricks.
It is a must to source the latter locally because of they are cheap at
10 RWF a brick and it would be expensive to transport them in case they
could be sourced from China.
A local engineer, Kazungu Fabrice, with more than 20 years of
experience, said that even though they are touring the site he is not
confident that his company will win that tender.
It is difficult to compete with Chinese companies accessing low cost
capital. The origin of their financial capacities is their home banks
which provide them with loans at a very low rate of interest. Wei Heng,
the operations manager at China star construction Co. Ltd, said that his
company access loan to Chinese banks at 8%. Local companies struggle to
get loans and once they get them, high rates of interest that stands
between 17 to 18% in Rwanda become a stumbling block.
As another local engineer informed us, the problem with Chinese
companies is that they use all means possible to win tenders, even
bribery. ‘During execution, they can bribe a supervisor to use cheap
sub-standard materials or equipment. He said that it is hard to
supervise Chinese companies to comply with the terms of tenders because
they want to use sub-standards materials that were not prescribed in the
terms of tenders they won in order to maximize profits.’
Rwanda Bureau of Standards, RBS, the government institution charged with
developing standards and enforcement, claimed that the majority of low
standards products originate from China. Philip Nzayire, head of quality
assurance at RBS, said recent inspections of construction materials
entering Rwanda included low-standards electrical installation cables,
roofing sheets and other goods. RBS successfully sought to re-export the
goods back to their country of origin.
What happens when low quality materials are not identified in time?
Well, they find their way into public buildings such as nightclubs and
restaurants that have caught fire. Literally.
Taken from here
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Thursday, February 13, 2014
Chinese Construction Tenders Beat The Local Rwandans'
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